INDEX [Download full report]
0. IDENTIFICATION OF THE REPORT
2. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES
2.1. DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVES
2.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE POSSIBLE VARIANTS
3. DESCRIPTION OF THE BASIC PROJECT
3.1. BUILDING PHASE
3.2. OPERATIONS PHASE
3.3. DESCRIPTION OF OUTFLOWS TO THE ENVIRONMENT
4. ENVIRONMENTAL INVENTORY
4.1. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
4.3 SOUND QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
4.4 AIR QUALITY
4.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND ENVIRONMENT
4.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF SEA ENVIRONMENT
4.8 SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
4.9 PROTECTED AREAS
5. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS
5.2 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS
5.3 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS
6. PROTECTIVE AND REMEDIAL MEASURES, PROGRAMME OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
PLANE Nº 1:GENERAL SITUATION (TOPOGRAPHIC). [See]
PLANE Nº 2: PORT FACILITIES. [See]
PLANE Nº 3: SAMPLING AREAS (SUPERFICIAL WATERS, SOUND QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT,CONTROL OF NOISE INMISION). [See]
PLANE Nº 4: MAP OF THE ECOLOGIC ASSESSEMENT OF THE GEOLOGY. [See]
PLANE Nº 5: MAP OF EDAPHOLOGY. [See]
PLANE Nº 6: MAP OF VEGETATION. [See]
PLANE Nº 7: MAP OF FAUNA HABITAT. [See]
PLANE Nº 8:BIONOMIC CARTOGRAPHY . [See]
PLANE Nº 9: ECOLOGICAL ASSESSEMENT OF SEA ENVIRONMENT. [See]
PLANE Nº 10: SAMPLING AREAS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS. [See]
PLANE Nº 11: UNITS OF THE LANDSCAPE. [See]
PLANE Nº 12: VISUAL BASIN. [See]
PLANE Nº 13: PROTECTED AREAS. [See]
PLANE Nº 14: AREAS OF ARCEHOLOGICAL INTEREST. [See]
PLANE Nº 15: PLANES OF ORGANISATION OF SUBSIDIARY REGULATIONS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARTEIXO.
PLANE Nº 15.1: PLANE Nº1 of the Subsidiary Regulations in the municipallity of Arteixo . [See]
PLANE Nº 15.2: PLANE Nº2 of the Subsidiary Regulations in the municipallity of Arteixo. [See]
PLANE Nº 15.3: PLANE Nº3 of the Subsidiary Regulations in the municipallity of Arteixo. [See]
PLANE Nº 15.4: PLANE Nº4 of the Subsidiary Regulations in the municipallity of Arteixo. [See]
PLANE Nº 15.5: PLANE Nº7 of the Subsidiary Regulations in the municipallity of Arteixo. [See]
0. IDENTIFICATION OF THE REPORT
0.1. TITLE OF THE SUMMARY: REPORTE OF THE BASIC PROJECT OF THE NEW FACILITIES IN THE PORT OF A CORUÑA
0.2. REFERENCE: 172/1424
María Louzao Gato. Head of the Environment Department
Mario Brage Gende – Geology Graduate.
Jesús Cotelo Castiñeira –Sociology Graduate
Ramón Fernández Armas – Forestry Engineer.
Estefanía Ibarra Castaño – Graduate in Sea Sciences
Antonio Joya Redondo – Biology Graduate. Qualified in Environmental Engineering and Management
Antonio Martínez Leira – Agricultural Technical Engineer
Tomas Ostolaza Alfaro -- Forestry Engineer.
Cristina Del Pozo Sánchez -- Biology Graduate.
Fernando Solórzano Miranda – Chemistry Graduate. Qualified in Environmental Engineering and Management
Víctor Tomás Botella – Geography and History Graduate. Specialisation in Archaeology
Mercedes Vilariño García – Chemistry Engineer
04. DATE: December 1999
This study intends to analyse the different options and variables for the expansion of the existing facilities in the Port of A Coruña, from an environmental perspective.
From the chosen option, a more detailed environmental assessment is developed in order to identify and foresee the changes in the environment, derived from the basic project of the new port facilities; also the suitable protective and remedial measures are implemented to minimise and delete the negative environmental impacts derived from the buildings and activities. A Program of Environmental Control is also developed.
The content of the study on Environmental Impact has been adapted to the guidelines established in the Decree 1131/1988, of 30th September, on Assessment of Environmental Impacts.
2. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES
2.1 DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVES
The building of new port facilities far from the centre of A Coruña aims at solving the following technical and environmental concerns:
• Increase the existing port area
• Take out of the town those traffics of goods with more environmental impact
• Take out of the town the oil pipeline, by building a new one far from the urban areas
Three possible locations have been taken under consideration for the new port facilities; finally, the most suitable, both technically and environmentally, was the area located between Punta Langosteira and Punta do Pelón, due to the following reasons:
• Design of the new oil pipeline, far from the town of A Coruña
• Remoteness from the city of a Coruña, which will minimise the impact of the port traffics on population
• Batimetry of the area; thus, the area to be dredged will be relatively small and that is environmentally favourable
• Close to the Repsol refinery
• Close to the Industrial Area of Sabon, which makes easier land accesses to the new facilities by means of a small stretch of the road
• Quite big plot to accommodate the new port facilities
2.1.1. Alternative 1 – Bens cove
Reason why this alternative is rejected:
• The entrance to the port would be difficult if heavy Northeast swell and high tonnage vessels (objective of the new port facilities)
• The batimetry in the area (very deep near the coast) does not allow to plan the outer dock further from the coast
• The implementation of this alternative would mean to dredge rocks in a vast area, which is technically difficult and environmentally unjustified
• Anyway, the Port Authority considered this area as possible outer development of port when it started to draw up the Land Use Plan of Port Areas. On 28th February 1996, the Port Authority of A Coruña receives a report of the Deputy Directorate of Coasts reporting favourably on the Land Use Plan of Port Areas, but for the stretch between Punta de Cabo and San Pedro Cove
2.1.2. Alternative 2: Las Yacentes
Next we summarize the environmental impacts considered as very critical and, hence, determining the rejection of this alternative:
• Changes in the marine ecological system in the estuaries, mainly in the estuary of A Coruña and also affecting the estuary of Betanzos. This impact would mean a considerable reduction of the marine ecosystem, as well as problems at a trophic level.
• Changes in the coastal dynamics and marine sediments in the bay of A Coruña, with impacts on Mera Beach, Canido Beach, Porto Cobo Beach, Bastiagueiro Beach, and Santa Cristina Beach.
• Lost of landscape quality: devaluation of the conditions in land and sea environments. Significant landscape impact.
• Changes in natural spaces: affection on the biotic elements in the wetlands of Betanzos and Burgo.
• The proposed design for the oil pipeline eliminates the environmental risks in the town of A Coruña, but increases the risk on the environment considerably.
• Other significant environmental alterations if this project were implemented are:
- Greater levels of air and noise pollution
- Pollution of rivers intersected by the access infrastructures to the new port facilities
- Pollution of areas with hydrogeologic interest
- Destruction of important agricultural lands
- Destruction of vegetation
- Lost of fauna diversity
2.1.3. Alternative 3: Punta Langosteira
This option aims at building the new facilities of the port of A Coruña in an area located between Punta Langosteira and Punta do Pelón. This option is considered the best both technical and environmentally.
Next sections describe this alternative in detail.
2.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE POSSIBLE VARIANTS
Once this option is chosen, there are three possible configurations of the port entrance. After deciding the best port entrance, four variants are analysed, mainly differentiated for the different positions of the sea wall.
Section 5.2 shows how the possible variants to choose the optimum variant from an environmental perspective, by analysing the following criteria: length of the wall, better use of the bottoms, volume of dredging, length of coast affected, need of material from the quarry, and economic costs.
On the basis of these criteria, the best variant is number four, describe in Section 3.
2.2.1. Analysis of land accesses
This section analyses a general access system to the new port facilities, allowing a better functionality with the rest of infrastructures and accesses.
The option answering the aforementioned hypotheses, without committing to accept other future accesses, is an access which takes advantage of the Embalse Avenue in the Industrial Area of Sabón (Plane 2), crossing the reservoir of Rosadoiro via an viaduct coming from the park of NECSO to a storage area of Ferroatlántica.
2.2.2. Analysed variants for the design of the oil pipeline
The design of the oil pipeline starts in the area planned for the Maritime Terminal going around the Costa Mount, crossing the valley which flows into Punta de Aguadoce, running up Pedra Mount, and continuing onto the hill of Cocho da Vella, and coming down to the oil refinery by the three possible options.
All these options are valid, and Option C is chosen as its design does not cross the area of Castro de Nostián, which means a considerable advantage on Option A (to protect the Cultural Heritage), and on Option B which would cross Nostian sewage treatment plant.
3. DESCRIPTION OF THE BASIC PROJECT
3.1 PHASE OF BUILDING
The buildings of this phase correspond to the building of the sea wall, the necessary land demarcations, the building of a dock transversal to the coastline, the filling of esplanades, and the building of four berths attached to the sea wall. These buildings are expected to be implemented in 118 months. Plane 2 shows the design of the future port facilities.
The sea walls and the berths, that is, the port facilities, which constitute the expansion planned by the Port Authority of A Coruña are: 3.720.60 metres of sea wall, 1.271,05 metres of contra-sea wall, 4 berths attached to the sea wall, 168,2 hectares of esplanade, 1.609,20 metres of docks, 97,7 hectares of demarcation to be attached to the esplanades and supply quarry materials to the building.
In accordance with the Basic Project, a road of 7 metres wide and 2.435 metres long is planned, with verges of 2.50 metres. This will allow to accommodate low traffics.
3.2 OPERATIONS PHASE
In this phase the actions which can impact are those derived from operations and maintenance in the whole facilities.
3.2.1. Dry bulk
The main products handled in the new port are: coal, cereals and grains, industrial bulk, quartz, sulphur and other general bulk (chemical fertilizers, manganese, etc.)
Although different operations will be carried out, according to the type of bulk, the following general work plan could be established:
• Load/unload of vessels
• Load/unload of trailers
• Ancillary operations
3.2.2. Liquid bulk
The main products to be handled in these new port facilities are: crude oil, gas-oil, fuel-oil, vegetal oils, etc.
Those products derived from oil will be the most relevant products in the new port, and they will be transported via pipeline to the Bens Refinery.
3.2.3. Ancillary services
• Inside transport: the scope of this service will depend on the kind of good; most itineraries will be within the port yard, moving the goods between vessels and intermediate destinations of storage
• Treatment of outflows: new port facilities will have a drainage system which will extend all over the facilities; the outflows collected by this system will be adequately treated to guarantee the established legal limitations
• Repairs: this activity focuses on mechanic and electric maintenance of the vessels machinery
We can also include in this group the following services: towage, pilotage, coffees and other services.
3.3 DESCRIPTION OF OUTFLOWS TO THE ENVIRONMENT
Next table summarises the different outflows which can be generated during the building and operations phases
Emissions on the atmosphere
Engines of land vehicles, vessels and general equipment.
Dust emissions due to the movement of land.
Load and unload of dry bulk
Machinery of different kinds
Overflows in rainy seasons.
Buildings of docks and esplanades.
Plant of outflows treatment
Load and unload of liquid bulk
Those related to the buildings: rubbles, land, used oils, etc.
Hydrocarbons in water
Waste assimilable to urban waste
Machinery, especially hammers, tyres, and compressors.
Machinery used in the different processes
Load and unload of dry bulk
Note: This document does not include the formation and exploitation of quarries, which will be object of the relevant Study on Environmental Impact and the Restoration Project
4. ENVIRONMENTAL INVENTORY
4.1 GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
The new port facilities will be located between Punta Langosteira and Alba Beach in Arteixo. The area of study goes from Barrañán Beach to Bens. If we move from the coastline to the inside, the analysis includes the area of the future pipeline, which will connect the new facilities with the refinery.
To carry out the climate analysis, we have taken into account those data corresponding to the meteorological station in A Coruña. According to the available data, this area belongs to a wet area, with mild temperatures, and without snow or frost.
4.3 SOUND QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
In order to know the existing sound levels in the area, NorControl (O.C.A.) measured the level of acoustic pressure in the environment.
The index of sound quality is defined according a set of values whose margins are between low quality (1) and very high quality (5). Next table summarises the values in some chosen points.
4.4. AIR QUALITY
The air quality is assessed from the emission analysis of SO2, particles in suspension and NO2 in the analysed area in the period March 1996 – March 1999 (Laboratory of Industrial Environment in Galicia).
The Index of Air Quality is considered as the general indicator, providing a global value of air quality from the individual values of NO2, SO2 and particles in suspension, according to the following table.
The present air quality has a global index of very high quality (4.5).
4.5. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Geomorphologically the coastal area under consideration is integrated as a part of the coastline of Arteixo, with the same general characteristics defining the coastal topography of the so-called Galician Upper Estuaries.
The morphology of the region of Arteixo resulted from two phases: firstly, the tectonic actions modifying the initial structures, and secondly, the actions of the erosive agents on the different materials of the substratum. The result is a surface of devastation and, consequently, of accumulation.
The region joins in the Iberian Massif, more specifically in the Galician-Castilian area of LOTZE (1945), included as Zone IV Middle Galicia – Tras os Montes in the MATTE classification (1968) and in the Central-Iberian Area in the Tectonic Map of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands, IGME (1972).
4.5.3. Superficial hydrology
The most important rivers in Arteixo are Arteixo river and Seixedo river. These two rivers flow into both sides of Alba Beach.
To analyse the future water quality, it is necessary to know the present situation; hence, some samples from the estuaries of these rivers were analysed.
The present quality of the analysed superficial waters in this are can be assigned a global quality index, calculated from the individual values obtained in the analysed parameters (assigning them a value between 1 and 5).
Once the water quality index is calculated, Seixedo and Arteixo rivers have obtained values of 1,1 and 1,2, respectively; thus, it can be stated that the quality of superficial waters in these points is low.
Hydrogeological characteristics of this area are strongly determined by the litology and tectonics of the existing materials, with a relatively reduced interest regarding the superficial circulation of waters.
Due to the low porosity of all materials in the rocky substratum, the accumulations of subterranean waters are reduced to the numerous schistosity and faults accumulating rain water.
To deal with the analysis of the soil, we have proceeded to differentiate the different types, allowing its ulterior use in the subsequent sections of the present study. Plane 5 shows the different kind of identified soils.
Soils can be classified according to the degree of evolution, closely linked to the parameters associated to the ecological assessment: fertility, depth, slope and structure.
4.5.6. Vegetation and Soil Uses
The units of vegetations have been classified, so that this classification could be used in the subsequent sections of this study. Plane 6 shows the different units of vegetation in the area under study.
The faunistic units have been classified, so that this classification could be used in the subsequent sections of this study. Plane 7 shows the different units of fauna in the area under study.
4.6. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
4.6.1. Bionomic, hydrologic and sedimentologic characteristics
The lower shore from Punta Langosteira to Punta del Compas has been analysed, that is, a coastline of 5 Km long. The underwater inspection works and the sampling have been developed from the bathymetric coast of 5 metres to the bathymetric coast of 50 metres.
When it comes to assessing the ecological significance of each community composing the marine biosphere in this area, the assessment criteria to be applied are those summarised in the following table.
Plane 9 shows the ecological assessments assigned to the area under study.
4.6.2. Coastal Dynamics
As shown in Annex 2, the buildings of the new port facilities will bring about changes in morphology of about 6,5º; thus, the coastline in Alba Beach will turn round in an anticlockwise direction.
The applied methodology has been based on defining the landscape units. The aim is to have landscape units with a homogeneous visual answer, both in the landscape components and in the visual answer. Plane 11 shows the landscape units defined in the area under study.
The assessment of each landscape unit is as follows:
4.8. SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
The area under study is located in Arteixo, Southeast of A Coruña, and it is part of the metropolitan periphery with a surface of 93,4 Km2 (12% of the provincial surface).
Arteixo has 117 population entities and 63 nucleus arranged in thirteen parishes, with a population of 20.898 inhabitants (1996).
4.8.1. Economic sectors
From an economic perspective, Arteixo has changed a lot since 1964 when the Industrial Area of Sabon was set up there. This fact revitalised its socio-economy and changed the weight of the different sectors, with the secondary and tertiary sectors as the predominant ones; and it was also remarkable the fact that this area integrated on a metropolitan economic system.
With regard to the employment and incomes, the significance of the primary sector has decreased progressively, from 10,5% in 1981 to 6,06 in 1996.
In the area under study we can see fishing ships now and then; these ships belong to the fishermen’s associations of Malpica, Laxe, Caión, A Coruña, Sada, Pontedeume and Ares, and also of Camariñas, Corme, Mera, Lorbé, O Grove, and Muros, among others. The most usual fleets fishing in this area are from Caión, Malpica, and A Coruña.
The fishing grounds closest to the project area, which could be affected by the project, are Mar do Monte and Mar do Faro.
The activities in the secondary sector developed in Arteixo employ 48,2% of the total active population; thus, this can be considered the main economic sector. Out of the total employed population, 33,01% works in industrial activities and 15,19% in the building industry.
The tertiary sector (commerce and services) employs the 45,74% of the active population.
Assessment of the socioeconomic sector
The following table shows how important each economic sector is.
4.8.2. Cultural Heritage
The development of the archaeological works revealed six elements of archaeological-historic interest in the area of the new port facilities in the coastline of Arteixo.